Agriculture livestock farms
AGRICULTURE LIVESTOCK FARMS – AMMONIA AND PARTICULATE MATTER AIR TREATMENT
The production from agriculture livestock farms is of major importance to the economies of many countries but is also connected with a number of environmental effects, including airborne emissions. At present, the final purpose of livestock production is not only to increase yields but also to improve sustainability. Currently emission standards are becoming increasingly stringent in European countries and the livestock industry is challenged to comply with them. Gases are generated from livestock manure decomposition, shortly after it is produced, during storage and treatment.
INFUSER has developed an energy efficient Advanced Pollution Control system, CLIMATIC, which effectively removes ammonia (NH3), other putrid odours (hydrogen sulphide H2S) and volatile organic compounds (VOCs). INFUSER’s experts highly recommend site specific abatement strategy for each and every farm.
Two of the most significant noxious gases found in livestock farms are ammonia (NH3) and hydrogen sulphide (H2S) (Algers et al., 2009) and livestock production is a major contributor of NH3 emissions (Steinfeld et al., 2006). These harmful gases have become a major concern in recent years. The livestock industry is marked by constant growth and consolidation, so are the public concerns about environmental and health effects of the air emissions from the animal farming. Ammonia (NH3) emitted from livestock houses is also a main precursor for forming secondary inorganic particles in the atmosphere (Erisman and Schaap, 2004).
In addition, livestock housing is a source of emissions of particulate matter (PM). High concentrations of PM threaten the environment, as well as the health and welfare of humans and animals. Particulate matter can adsorb and contain gases, odorous compounds, and micro-organisms, which can enhance its biological effect.
The formation of PM affect not only the air quality issues inside, but also outside agriculture livestock farms. Pollutants generated in livestock houses are released to the outside environment through the ventilation system. It is commonly agreed that agricultural activities in general, and livestock production in particular emit considerable amounts of PM to the atmosphere. In The Netherlands, for instance, the contribution of agriculture to PM emissions is estimated to be close to 25%. Inside livestock production, intensive poultry and pig houses are the main sources of PM emissions contributing to about 50% (poultry), and 30% (pigs) of total PM emissions from agriculture in Europe (EMEP-CORINAIR, 2007).
Emitted PM is unhealthy as it carries gases and odours, microorganisms and their components, and other bioactive components. The air currents distribute the PM away from the place of origin, thus, causing respiratory problems to people in proximity of the farms.
- Up to 95% removal of ammonia and smelly compounds
- No use of bacteria or acids
- No pressure drop, hence low energy consumption
- Increasing the fertiliser quality of manure
- No waste or residual compounds
Technology – Innovation and Knowledge
INFUSER’s CLIMATIC system uses Gas Phase Advanced Oxidation (GPAO) to remove pollution from industrial emissions. GPAO accelerates and harnesses the natural self-cleaning properties of the Earth’s atmosphere in a closed reactor system, and captures emissions before they pollute the environment.
CLIMATIC self-neutralizes the pollution and reuses the waste product to increase the fertilizer quality.
The solution has eliminated the use of hazardous acids or hard-to-manage bacteria in the cleaning process. Through a chemical reaction, carbon dioxide (CO2) is used in a packed wet-scrubber to capture 95% of the ammonia (NH3) emission before it escapes in to the atmosphere.
The carbon dioxide (CO2) can either be supplied by using a source of liquid carbon dioxide (CO2) or by using the smoke gas from the farm’s straw burner.
At the second treatment stage, the smelly sulphur and acidic compounds are captured and reduced with up to 90%, using an iron catalysis reaction. During this treatment state, ozone (O3) is infused into the scrubber water using a micro bubble defuser. The process generates acidic water as waste. This waste is pumped into the manure tanks increasing the fertilizer quality of the manure – all sources of pollution and waste are used as part of the treatment process while reducing smell and pollution.